ABU HANIFA (80 A.H. - 150 A.H.)
Introduction of FIQAH
Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa, Imam Maalik, Imam Shaafi and Imam Ahmed bin Hambal (radi Allahu anhumul ajma'in)are the leaders of the four schools of Fiqh (Islamic Law).
"FIQH" is the Science of Islamic Law or Jurisprudence. It refers to the collection and compilation of Islamic laws based on the Holy Quran and the Sunnah of Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). These great Muslims devoted themselves to the task of developing the science of understanding Islamic Law and its practise.
Although they differed
from each other, all the four great Imams had great respect for each
other. They were all teachers and pupils of each other for the
common goal of enhancing their knowledge about Islam. All of them
were unanimous on Aqa'ids (Islamic Beliefs). We, as Muslims, must
respect the different Sunni schools of thought.
It is stated in a Hadith Shareef which
Imam al-Harizmi reported from Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah (radi Allahu
anhumA) that Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi
wasallam) said: "Among my Ummah, there will come a man called
Abu Hanifa. On the Day of Resurrection, he will be the light of my
Ummah." Another Hadith Shareef states: "In every century, a
number of my Ummah will attain to high grades. Abu Hanifa will be
the highest of his time." These two Ahadith are recorded in "Durr
In Makkatul Mukarammah and Madinatul Munawwarah, he learnt under Sayyiduna Ata bin Abi Rabah and Sayyiduna Ikramah (radi Allahu anhuma). In fact, Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (radi Allahu anhu) had numerous teachers. Some historians say that he learnt Hadith from about 4 000 scholars.
Some of his famous teachers were:
Sayyiduna Imam Baaqir, Sayyiduna Imam Jafer Saadiq, Sayyiduna Ali,
Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah, Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Umar, Sayyiduna
Aqabah bin Umar, Sayyiduna Safwaan, Sayyiduna Jabir and Sayyiduna
Abu Qatadah (radi Allahu anhumul ajma'in).
AS A TEACHER
When he was 56 years old, Caliph Mansur
came to power after the Ummayad dynasty was overthrown by the
Abbasids in 132 A.H. Since Imam Abu Hanifa (radi Allahu anhu)
opposed the Caliph's ruthless killing of the Ahle Bait, he was
arrested. The Caliph offered the Imam the post of a Qaadi (Judge),
but he refused. The Caliph Mansur had him beaten with a stick 30
strokes. His feet bled. Caliph Mansur repented and offered Imam
A'zam Abu Hanifa (radi Allahu anhu) 30 000 pieces of silver.
The great Imam refused once more. He was imprisoned again and
thrashed 10 more strokes every day.
In 459 A.H. a Mazaar (Tomb) was built
for him by the Seljuki ruler Alp Arsalan. He lies buried in a Tomb
situated near Baghdad in Iraq.
a. Sayyiduna Qadi Abu Yusuf (radi Allahu anhu)
b. Sayyiduna Imam Muhammed (radi Allahu anhu)
c. Sayyiduna Imam Zufur (radi Allahu