Allama Maulana Syed Shah Turabul Haque Qadri
(may Allah increase his beneficence)
English Translation by Mohammed Aqib Farid Qadri
I N D E X
What is Prayer ??
The importance of Prayer
The sin of letting the Prayer lapse
The blessings of Prayer
The excellence of offering Prayer in congregation
The importance of reverence and humility
Prayer makes one pious
Being certain that the Prayer has been accepted
The Prayers of the pious
The water to be used
The obligations in ablution (Wuzu)
The Sunnah (Prophet’s
traditions) in ablution
The method of performing ablution
Things that break the ablution
Excellence of using Miswaak
The obligations in bathing
Bathing according to Sunnah
Things that make bathing compulsory
The time for tayammum
Method and important rules regarding tayammum
Purifying impure clothes
The call for Prayer (Azaan)
The number of rakaats in each Prayer
The conditions of Prayer
Times when Prayer is prohibited
Offering Prayer according to Sunnah
Obligatory (Farz) acts in Prayer
The essentials (Wajibaat) of Prayer
The Sunnah acts in Prayer
What invalidates the Prayer
Undesirable/Disliked acts (Makrooh) in Prayer
Rules regarding crossing someone involved in Prayer
Etiquettes of the Mosque
Rules of congregational prayer
The Witr Prayer and Qunoot supplication
The Friday Prayer
Prayer of the two Eids
Offering the Eid Prayer
The funeral Prayer
The method of funeral Prayer
The Taraweeh Prayer in Ramadan
The lapsed (Qada) Prayer
Prayers of the sick
Prayers on a journey
The voluntary Prayers
The Tahajjud Prayer
The Ishraaq Prayer
The Chaasht Prayer
The Awwaabeen Prayer
The journey Prayer
The Prayer of repentance
The Tasbeeh Prayer
The need Prayer (Salaat-ul-Haajat)
The Istikharah Prayer (for knowing what is suitable).
Recitation of the Quran
The prostration for Quran recitation.
The night vigil
The pure words (Kalemaat-e-Tayyebaat)
Some Sunnah supplications
For easier comprehension, please read and understand the meanings of the following words, which are oft repeated in this book.
Salaat or Namaaz - The customary Prayer of Muslims.
Imaam - Leader of the congregation in Prayer.
Azaan - The call to Prayer
Muazzin - One who announces the “Azaan”
Iqamah - Announcement that the congregational Prayer has been established.
Khutbah - The sermon.
Niyyah - Intention.
Farz - Obligatory.
Wajib - Essential, mandatory.
Sunnah - The tradition of the Holy Prophet .
Moukkaddah - Emphasised.
Ghair Moukkaddah - Non-emphasised.
Nafil - Voluntary or additional.
Wuzu - Ablution (with water)
Ghusl - A bath (with water)
Masah - To stroke (wipe) or rub gently over.
Miswaak - A small branch or stem, used for brushing teeth.
Khilaal - Act of removing dirt or particles (e.g. stuck between teeth, toes)
Tayammum - An alternate to ablution/bath, by using soil or like matter.
Makrooh - An act that is disliked/disapproved.
Kalemah - Any meaningful phrase.
Tayyeb or Tayyebah - Pure
Janabah - State of greater impurity due to sexual defilement.
Mustahab - Recommended, better
Makrooh Tahreemi - An act that is strongly disliked, close to forbidden.
Haraam - Forbidden/prohibited.
Rakaat - A single round/cycle of all bodily actions within a Prayer.
Taawuz - Seeking Allah’s refuge
Tasmiyah - Reciting Bismillah Shareef
Tasmeey - A remembrance during Prayer, while rising from the bow.
Tasbeeh - A remembrance proclaiming Allah’s purity.
Dua - Supplication.
Tahmeed - A remembrance praising Allah.
Important Note : Arabic text from Quran and “Sunnah” have been transliterated into English, in italic form. However it is not possible to pronounce the words correctly from transliteration (especially similar sounding alphabets) and readers are advised to learn these from the Arabic text.
WHAT IS PRAYER (SALAAT) ??
The Prayer is:
The coolness of the eyes of the Holy Prophet Mohammed
A pillar of religion
The key to paradise
The spiritual ascent of the faithful believer
The greater Jihad (holy war)
A sign of faith
Light of the heart
The radiance of the face
The nourishment of the soul
The Prayer is:
A cause of blessings in the house
A cause of abundance in provision
Cure for ailments of the body and soul
A light in the gloom of the grave
A canopy in the hot sun on the Day of Resurrection
The Prayer is:
An entertainer of the heart amidst the fear of the grave
A swift carrier across the thin bridge on the Day of Resurrection
A means of attaining forgiveness from sins
A barrier between hell and the offerer of Prayers
A repeller of the devil
A bestower of Allah's proximity and His favour
After proper acceptance of faith and its inherent beliefs, i.e. the recitation of the Pure Words (Kalemah Tayyebah), the most important duty is that of offering the Prayer.
The Holy Prophet has stated: "The first duty that Allah, the Supreme, has ordained upon my nation is that of offering Prayer, and indeed Prayer is the first thing that will be taken account of on the Day of Resurrection."
It is also reported in the Hadith that, "Whoever keeps the Prayer established, has kept his religion established - and whoever leaves Prayer has demolished religion".
It is reported by Syedna Abu Hurairah (may Allah be well pleased with him) that the Holy Prophet said: “Allah the Supreme states, 'O the son of Adam !! Free yourself for My worship, I shall fill your heart with content - and if you do not do so, I shall make you busy in several affairs but not remove your poverty.' " (Mishkaat ul Masabeeh, Ibn Majah)
"Be content with five things before (the advent of) the other five: Youth before old age, good health before sickness, prosperity before poverty, spare time before indulgence in affairs, and life before death." (Hadith reported in Tirmizi)
Regrettably, the Muslims of this age have forgotten Prayer. Most people simply do not have the time for it, whereas some people do offer their Prayers but do not know the proper way of offering it. It is imperative to learn the correct way of offering the Prayer, and to offer all the 5 Obligatory Prayers with the congregation.
This concise book attempts to highlight the
importance, excellence, mode and rules of Prayer from the Holy Quran, Hadith,
books of Hanafi Jurisprudence, Fatawa Razvia and Bahaare Shariat. May Allah
grant all Muslims the guidance to seek religious knowledge and to act upon it -
A'ameen (and through the supplications of the Holy Prophet
The importance of Prayer (SALAAT)
The importance of establishing Prayer has been mentioned in the Holy Quran and Hadith, on several occasions:
Allah the Supreme states in the Holy Quran: “And keep the Prayer established, and pay the charity, and bow your heads with those who bow (in Prayer).”(Surah Baqarah)
On another occasion, it is stated: “Guard all your Prayers, and the middle Prayer; and stand with reverence before Allah.” (Surah Baqarah)
On yet another occasion, it is stated: “And keep the Prayer established at the two ends of the day and in some parts of the night.” (Surah Hud)
The "two ends of the day" mean the morning and evening. The time before noon is classified as morning and the time after it is classified as evening. The Morning Prayer is the Dawn (Fajr) Prayer, and the Prayers of the evening are the Afternoon (Zohr) and the Evening (Asr) Prayers. The Prayers for the night are the Sunset (Maghrib) and the Night (Isha) Prayers. (Tafseer Khazain ul Irfan)
The Holy Quran classifies Prayer as an act that is opposite to the habits of polytheists. It states, “Inclining towards Him - and fear Him, and keep the Prayer established, and never be of the polytheists.” (Surah Ruum)
In other words, not offering the Prayer is to be like the polytheists. This is further confirmed by the words of the Holy Prophet "The entity that lies between a bondman and disbelief, is the abandonment of Prayer." (Saheeh Muslim)
The Holy Quran warns those who abandon Prayer, in the following words: “And after them came the unworthy successors who squandered Prayer and pursued their own desires, so they will soon encounter the forest of Gai in hell.” (Surah Maryam)
“Gai” is a well in the lowest part of hell, in which accumulates the pus of its inhabitants. It is also mentioned that “Gai” is the hottest and deepest part of hell. This is the well which Allah opens up whenever the heat of hell lessens, causing the fire of hell to rage again. This well is the destination of those who abandon Prayer – and adulterers, drunkards, usurers and those who hurt their parents.
The Holy Quran has mentioned a trait of the hypocrites, that they are lazy in offering Prayers, and that they deem it to be a burden. It therefore states: “Undoubtedly the hypocrites, in their fancy, seek to deceive Allah whereas He will extinguish them while making them oblivious; and when they stand up for Prayer, they do it unwillingly and for others to see, and they do not remember Allah except a little.” (Surah Nisaa)
The Holy Prophet has said the following about the hypocrites: “The most burdensome Prayers for the hypocrites are the Night Prayer and the Dawn Prayer. If they were to know the blessings they have in store, they would have come to them, even slithering.” (Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim)
The Holy Quran also explains that offering the Prayer is not at all a burden for those who believe in Allah and the Last Day. It says: “And seek help in patience and Prayer; and truly it is hard except for those who prostrate before Me with sincerity - Who know that they have to meet their Lord, and that it is to Him they are to return.” (Surah Baqarah)
We therefore know from the Holy Quran, and from the Hadith, that it is obligatory on all Muslims to offer Prayers 5 times daily. To be lazy in Prayer, and especially not to offer the Night and Dawn Prayers, are the traits of hypocrites. We also know that not offering Prayer is the way of the disbelievers - this is why the Sahabah (the Companions of the Holy Prophet) did not deem the abandonment of any deed as disbelief, except the abandonment of Prayer.
The importance of Prayer can be gauged from the fact that it has been emphasised right from childhood. The Holy Prophet has said: “Command your children to pray when they become seven years old, and beat them for it (Prayer) when they become ten years old; and arrange their beds (to sleep) separately.
The sin of letting the Prayer lapse.
The Holy Prophet has said: “Whoever lets the Prayer lapse, and then offers it after its due time, will burn in hell for not praying on time, for a period of one "Haqab".”
One "Haqab" equals 80 years, and one year has 360 days, and the Day of Resurrection will equal a thousand years. Which means that one who lets just one Prayer lapse, will burn in hell for a period of 28,800,000 years !! (May Allah protect us - A'ameen).
Allamah Amjad Ali Aazmi (may Allah have mercy on him) mentions that abandoning Prayer is terrible in itself, but see what Allah, the Supreme, says about those who let it lapse: “So “vail” (or ruin) is to those offerers of Prayer - Those who are neglectful of their Prayer.” (Surah Maoon)
“Vail” is the name of a dreadful valley in hell, from which hell also seeks refuge. This will be the destination of those who let their Prayers lapse. (Bahaare Shariat)
The blessings of Prayer
The Holy Prophet said: “If there was a river at the door of anyone of you and he took a bath in it five times a day, would you notice any dirt on him ??” The Companions said: “Not a trace of dirt would be left.” The Prophet added, “That is the example of the five Prayers with which Allah annuls evil deeds.” (Saheeh Bukhari & Saheeh Muslim)
Here “evil deeds” mean the lesser sins. The cardinal sins are forgiven only after repentance and giving the people their due rights.
It is recorded in Mishkaat Shareef that once during the winter season, the Holy Prophet caught hold of a tree branch and shook it, causing its leaves to fall. He then said: “When a Muslim offers Prayer, seeking Allah's pleasure, his sins fall off like these leaves did.”
The Holy Prophet has also said: “For the one who is regular in his Prayer, the Prayer will become a light, a guide and the cause of his salvation on the Day of Resurrection. Whereas the one who is not regular in his Prayers, will not have any light, guide or salvation - and on the Day of Resurrection, he will be along with Qaroon, Firaun, Hamaan, Ubai bin Khalaf” - i.e. with the major infidels. (Mishkaat)
Another blessing of Prayer is that all
hardships are resolved through it, and the offerer gains solace from it. Hazrat
Huzaifah (may Allah be well pleased with him) says that whenever the Holy
was faced with any difficulty, he used to turn his attention towards Prayer.
The excellence of offering Prayer in congregation (With Jamaat)
The Holy Prophet has said: “The Prayer in congregation is twenty seven times superior to the Prayer offered by a person alone.” (Bukhari & Muslim)
The Holy Prophet found some people absenting themselves from certain Prayers and he said: “I intend to order someone to lead people in Prayer, and then go to the persons who do not join the (congregational) Prayer and then order their houses to be burnt by the bundles of fuel. If one amongst them were to know that he would find a fat fleshy bone he would attend the Night Prayer.” (Muslim & Abu Dawood)
Abu Huraira (may Allah be well pleased with him) reported that the Holy Prophet said: “A man's Prayer in congregation is more valuable by twenty degrees and some above them as compared with his Prayer in his house and his market, for when he performs ablution doing it well, then goes out to the mosque, and he is impelled (to do so) only by (the love of congregational) Prayer, he has no other objective before him but Prayer. He does not take a step without being raised a degree for it and having a sin remitted for it, till he enters the mosque, and when he is busy in Prayer after having entered the mosque, the angels continue to invoke blessing on him as long as he is in his place of worship saying: O Allah, show him mercy, and pardon him !! Accept his repentance (and the angels continue this supplication for him) so long as he does not do any harm in it, or as long as his ablution is not broken.” (Saheeh Muslim)
Abdullah ibn Abbas (may Allah be well pleased with him) reported that the Holy Prophet said: “If anyone hears him who makes the call to Prayer and is not prevented from joining the congregation by any excuse (he was asked what an excuse consisted of and replied that it was fear or illness) the Prayer he offers will not be accepted from him.” (Abu Dawood)
If the one who misses the congregational Prayer knew what reward lay in it for him, he would come to it slithering. (Tibrani)
The importance of reverence and humility
The Holy Prophet states: “Worship Allah as if you see Him, and if you cannot do this, then you must at least be certain that He is looking at you." (Saheeh Bukhari)
The Holy Prophet states: “Whoever offers all his Prayers on time after a perfect ablution, stands with humility and reverence, prostrates and bows with calm, and offers the entire Prayer in good manner - so that Prayer becomes a radiating one and prays for him thus: O the offerer of Prayer !! May Allah guard you the way you have guarded me. And as regards the one who offers the Prayer poorly - that is without proper ablution, and not even prostrating and bowing correctly - then the Prayer curses him thus: May Allah ruin you the way you have ruined me. Then the Prayer is folded and thrown back at his face like a used (dirty) cloth.” (Tibrani).
The Holy Prophet once said: “The worst thief is one who steals during the Prayer.” The companions therefore asked "O the Messenger of Allah !! How does he steal in Prayer ??” He answered "He does not prostrate or bow correctly." (Musnad Imaam Ahmed & Tibrani)
In yet another Hadith, glad tidings of salvation have been given to those who regularly offer their Prayers with humility and reverence. (Abu Dawood).
Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Abbas (may Allah be well pleased with him) states: "The reverent ones are those who fear Allah and offer their Prayers with calm."
It is clear from the above that Prayer must be offered with reverence, humility and calm, keeping in mind all its requirements.
Prayer makes one pious
Allah, the Supreme, states in the Holy Quran: “O dear Prophet (Mohammed ), recite from the Book which has been sent down to you, and establish the Prayer; indeed the Prayer stops from indecency and evil; and indeed the remembrance of Allah is the greatest; and Allah knows all what you do.” (Surah Ankabut)
The above verse reveals that Prayer stops from indecency and evil matters - which means that if one offers the Prayer regularly and properly, he shuns indecent matters in due course, and becomes pious.
A young man from the Ansar used to pray alongwith the Holy Prophet , and was simultaneously also given to involving himself in cardinal sins. The matter was reported to the Holy Prophet who said: “His Prayer will some day prevent him from these evil acts". Very soon, he therefore repented and his state became better.
Hazrat Anas (may Allah be well pleased with him) said: “If the Prayer does not prevent one from indecency and evil, then that is not Prayer." (Tafseer Khazain ul Irfaan)
Being certain that the Prayer has been accepted
Do not ever get distracted by the worldly affairs that come to mind while offering Prayer. Rather do not care about them, and pay attention to the meanings of the words that are being said during the Prayer.
Some people question as to how they can be sure whether Allah has accepted the Prayer that they have offered. As an answer, just reflect upon the following Hadith: "Allah will deal with His bondman on the Day of Resurrection in the same manner as the bondman had thought about his Lord". It is therefore imperative, alongwith the fear of Allah, to have the good belief that our worship has been accepted.
Scholars say that if you have offered the Dawn Prayer and then later offered the Afternoon Prayer, then be well convinced that Allah has accepted your Dawn Prayer. Further, when you have offered the Evening Prayer, be convinced that the Afternoon Prayer has been accepted. Similarly, after each Prayer, be sure that the previous Prayer has been accepted - because if Allah had not accepted your Dawn Prayer, he would not guide you to offer the Afternoon Prayer. The Beneficent Lord's guidance to you to offer the next Prayer is a proof of His having accepted your previous one.
The Prayers Of The Pious
Every Prayer should be offered like a person who is certain that it is the last Prayer of his life. Hazrat Hatim Balkhi (may Allah have mercy upon him) was once questioned as to how he offered his Prayers. He answered, "When it is time for Prayer, I do a proper ablution and stand calmly on the prayer-mat. I imagine that the Holy Kaaba is in front of me, Paradise on my right, hell on my left, and that I am standing on the thin bridge (of the Day of Resurrection) - and that the angel of death is above me and that this is the last Prayer of my life. Then with utmost humility I proclaim "Allahu Akbar (Allah is the Greatest)" and keeping the meanings in mind, I recite the Holy Quran - and with extreme reverence and humility I complete the Prayers. I then hope that Allah will accept it by His mercy, and fear that it may be rejected because of the shortcomings of my deeds."
Such is the Prayer of the Friends of Allah !! May Allah guide us to follow the footsteps of His friends. Aameen.